Presentations from Eidactics & SRF

Conference presentations and local publications selected for their relatively broad appeal and understandability.

MYOTOX  Pharmacologic Treatment of Strabismus

Debert-2015-Pharmacologic-treatment-of-strabismus. Debert I, Miller JM (2015). Pharmacologic Treatment of Strabismus. Eidactics.
Debert-2015-History-of-botulinum-toxin-therapy Debert I, Miller JM (2015). History of Botulinum Toxin Therapy. Eidactics.
MillerJM-2011-MYOTOX-concepts-and-methods Miller JM (2015). Nitric Oxide, Satellite Cells, and Myogenesis. Eidactics.
MillerJM-2015-MYOTOX-concepts-and-methods Miller JM (2011). MYOTOX Project. Concepts & Methods. Eidactics.
PDF
Scott AB, Miller JM, Danh KK (2013). Bupivacaine shortens eye muscles and corrects strabismus. Presentation at 149th Annual Meeting, American Ophthalmological Society. San Diego, CA, USA. (Supplemental Video).

EOM Forces  Extraocular Muscle Forces

MillerJM-2013-MFT-fabrication-testing-and-implantation Miller JM (2013). Extraocular Muscle Force Transducer 
Fabrication, Testing & Implantation. Eidactics, pgs 1-27.

The MFT/M-2.11 Muscle Force Transducer for NHP extraocular muscle is described in sufficient detail to understand how it works and is used, and then, with complete fabrication details.
MillerJM-2008-Missing-EOM-force-paradox-(SFN)

Miller JM (2008). Missing extraocular muscle force paradox – Poster presented at Neuroscience-2008 (38th annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience).


Objectives: Motoneuron activity during symmetric convergence (in which only vergence-related neural components respond) predicts horizontal rectus co-contraction (Mays & Porter, 1984; Gamlin et al, 1989; Zhou & King, 1998). Paradoxically, muscle force measurements during both symmetric convergence, and in the aligned eye during asymmetric convergence (the later being methodologically cleaner because the instrumented eye does not change position), fail to show force increases or co-contraction (Miller et al, 2002). We have now demonstrated the complete "missing EOM force paradox" by simultaneously recording horizontal rectus motoneuron activity and muscle force during asymmetric convergence. Methods: Vergence-related medial rectus motoneurons were identified and recorded extracellularly in rhesus monkeys in the usual way. Medial rectus muscle forces were recorded with chronically-implanted muscle force transducers (MFTs; Miller et al, 1992). Results & Conclusions: In asymmetric convergence, medial rectus motoneurons having high vergence gains increased activity as the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle in the aligned eye decreased force. It is unlikely that ipsilateral motoneurons with strong conjugate components offset changes in activity of vergence cells, because of the similarity of symmetric & asymmetric muscle force findings. Studies of lateral rectus motoneurons and conjugate-vergence interactions are ongoing. The simple notion of an oculomotor "final common path" must be replaced by more realistic models of motoneuron recruitment, muscle fiber interaction, and extraocular mechanics.

MillerJM-2008-EOM-force-paradoxes-(Nantes)
MillerJM-2008-Les-paradoxes-des-forces-des-MEO-(Nantes)
Miller JM (2008). Extraocular Muscle Force Paradoxes – Invited talk at the annual conference Recherche en Oculomotricit, Nantes, France [In English and French]
MillerJM-2004-Neural-control-of-a-complex-OMP-(UAB) Miller JM (2004). Neural Control of a Complex Oculomotor Plant – Invited Lecture at the Vision Sciences Research Center, Univ of Alabama at Birmingham.

EOBM  Extraocular Biomechanics & Modeling

MillerJM-2008-Understanding-EOM-pulleys
Miller JM (2008). Understanding & Misunderstanding EOM Pulleys – Talk at Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute.
MillerJM-2008-Comprendre-les-Poulies-(Nantes)
Miller JM (2008). Understanding & Misunderstanding EOM Pulleys – Invited talk at the annual conference Recherche en Oculomotricit, Nantes, France [In English and French].
Oculomotor Fundamentalism
Miller JM (2007b). False Differential Predictions in Lee, Lai, Brodale & Jampolsky (2007). eLetter submitted to IOVS in response to "Kyoung-Min Lee, Annie P. Lai, James Brodale, & Arthur Jampolsky (2007). Sideslip of the Medial Rectus Muscle during Vertical Eye Rotation. IOVS, 48 (10), 4527-4533".

Jampolskys group has opposed the notion of EOM pulleys (see also McClung, Allman, Dimitrova & Goldberg, 2006) that has evolved over the past 20 years based on broad evidence of many types (see review in Miller 2007a, below), including recently, the compelling findings of Ghasia & Angelaki (2005) and Klier & Angelaki (2006), which Lee et al misrepresent and dismiss. Here, they use unproven, artifact-vulnerable, poorly specified methodology, where suitable broadly accepted methodology exists, and report only selected data. In interpreting their results, Lee et al selectively apply their arguments to an obsolete non-pulley model and a straw-man pulley model, the later having trochlea-like, localized, rigid pulleys, never previously proposed. Even with these biases, Lee et al cannot explain their data without assuming the existence of distributed, elastic, musculo-orbital, origin-determining EOM pulleys.
MillerJM-2002-Four-new-methods-(Beijing)
MillerJM-2002-Four-new-methods-(Beijing)-chi
Miller JM (2002). Four New Methods in Oculomotility - Many New Findings – invited talk at Fudan University Hospital, Shanghai, and at Peking Union Hospital in Beijing [English & Chinese].
MillerJM-1999-Orbit-18-User-Manual Miller JM (1999). Orbit™ 1.8 Gaze Mechanics Simulation User Manual. Eidactics, San Francisco, pgs 1-163.

Orbit is a unique software tool that provides easy access to a sophisticated biomechanical model, able to simulate classical strabismus syndromes and data from individual cases, clarifying diagnostic and treatment possibilities in well-defined physiologic terms. This manual introduces both the biomechanical method of strabismus analysis and the use of Orbit, which is now available in an emulation environment that runs under OSX on modern Intel Macs.
OOI™
Miller JM, Shamaeva I, Pavlovski DS (1995). Orbit 1.8™ gaze mechanics simulation. Eidactics; Suite 404; Greenwich Street; San Francisco, CA 94109; USA.
No Download Wiesmair W (2003). Model Building and Simulation with a Biomechanical Construction Kit – Talk at Smith-Kettlewell.

EOTA   Extraocular Tissue Architecture

MillerJM-2003-Gold-beads-(ARVO) Miller JM, Rossi EA, Konishi S, WiesmairM, Abramoff MD (2003). Visualizing Ocular Tissue Movement with Little Gold Beads. ARVO.
MillerJM-2002-EOTTA-(ARVO) Miller JM (2002). Extraocular Tissue Type Architecture. ARVO.

MethLab  From the MethLab

MillerJM-2014-Segmenting-muscle-fibers Miller JM (2014). Photographing & Segmenting Muscle Fibers in Stained EOM Crossections
.

Quantitative histology of extraocular muscles (EOMs) conventionally uses sampling to avoid having to count, or worse measure, the many thousands of fibers in each crossectional slice. Unfortunately, this tissue is highly inhomogeneous, and unbiased sampling difficult. We've developed a practical method to segment essentially all the muscle fibers in hundreds of stained EOM slices and calculate their individual areas, excluding voids, connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves.
MillerJM-2013-MFT-fabrication-testing-and-implantation Miller JM (2013). Extraocular Muscle Force Transducer Fabrication, Testing & Implantation.
MillerJM-2006-LabOS Miller JM (2006). LabOS: Closed-loop, Protocol-driven Data Acquisition & Control for Biomedical Experiments – Introduction to a new software system.
MillerJM-1999-Orbit-18-User-Manual Miller JM (1999). Orbit™ 1.8 Gaze Mechanics Simulation User Manual. Eidactics, San Francisco, pgs 1-163.

Orbit is a unique software tool that provides easy access to a sophisticated biomechanical model, able to simulate classical strabismus syndromes and data from individual cases, clarifying diagnostic and treatment possibilities in well-defined physiologic terms. This manual introduces both the biomechanical method of strabismus analysis and the use of Orbit, which is now available in an emulation environment that runs under OSX on modern Intel Macs.

Other Presentations

MillerJM-2005-Unethical-behavior Miller JM (2005). Psychology of Unethical Behavior – Talk at Smith-Kettlewell and at UC Berkeley.