Publications from Eidactics & SRF

These peer-reviewed publications from our lab include links () to local files where publishers fail to offer reasonable access (eg, free after embargo) to good quality, searchable PDFs (or an open-access option at the time of publication). Authors' Cuts () are pre-publication texts, well formatted, and generally more complete, eg, with data and appendices that Journals typically decline to publish. Within each group, order is alphabetic by first author, then reverse-chronological.

MYOTOX   Pharmacologic Treatment of Strabismus & Blepharospasm


DebertI-2015-Pharmacologic-injection-treatment-(AC) Debert I, Miller JM, Danh KK, Scott AB (2016). Pharmacologic Injection Treatment of Comitant Strabismus. Journal of AAPOS, vol 20, pgs 106-111.
[Abstract] Purpose: To report the magnitude and stability of corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus achieved by injecting bupivacaine (BPX, optionally with epinephrine) and botulinum A toxin (BTXA) into extraocular muscles of alert adult subjects using EMG guidance. Methods: Fifty-five adult comitant horizontal strabismus patients participated in a prospective observational clinical series, 29 of which previously had 1 or more unsuccessful strabismus surgeries. Thirty-one patients with esodeviations received BPX injections in a lateral rectus muscle, some with BTXA in the medial rectus. Twenty-four patients with exodeviations received BPX in a medial rectus, some with BTXA in the lateral rectus. A second treatment (BPX, BTXA, or both) was given to 27 patients who had residual strabismus after the first. Five patients required additional injections. Clinical alignment was measured at 6 mo, 1 yr, 2 yrs, 3 yrs, 4 yrs, and 5 yrs after treatment, with mean followup of 28 mo. Results: Initial misalignments of 23.8∆ (13.4°) were reduced at 28 mo by 16.0∆ (9.1°) with successful outcomes (residual deviations ≤10∆) in 56% of patients. Sixty-six percent of patients with initial misalignments ≤25∆ enjoyed successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 13.2∆ (7.5°), and 40% of patients with larger misalignments had successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 20.9∆ (11.8°). Corrections were stable over followups as long as 5 yrs. Conclusions:  Following transient increases in muscle size, BPX treatment results in stable changes in muscle lengths, without recession, resection, or other compensatory damage to extraocular biomechanics. Injection treatments effect stable, clinically significant corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus, providing low-cost alternatives to incisional strabismus surgery, particularly where it is desirable to minimize surgical anesthesia and avoid extraocular scarring. (Authors' Cut PDF; Publisher's site)
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Magoon E, Scott AB (1987). Botulinum toxin chemodenervation in infants and children: an alternative to incisional strabismus surgery. J. Pediatr. 110: 719-22.
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McNeer KW, Magoon EH, Scott AB (1999). Chemodenervation therapy: Techniques and indications. In: Clinical Strabismus Management. Rosenbaum, Santiago (eds.), W.B. Saunders Co.: Philadelphia; Chapter 32: 423-32..
MillerJM-2013-BPX-remodels-and-corrects-(AC) Miller JM, Scott AB, Danh KK, Strasser D, Sane M (2013). Bupivacaine injection remodels extraocular muscles & corrects comitant strabismus. Ophthalmology, vol 120, num 12, December.
[Abstract] Purpose: Evaluate clinical effectiveness and anatomic changes resulting from bupivacaine injection into extraocular muscles to treat non-paralytic horizontal strabismus. Methods: We report a prospective observational clinical series of 31 comitant horizontal strabismus patients. Nineteen with esotropia received bupivacaine injections in the lateral rectus, and 12 with exotropia, in the medial rectus. Sixteen of these, with large strabismus angles, also received botulinum type A toxin injections in the antagonist muscle at the same treatment session. A second treatment was given to 13 patients who had residual strabismus after the first. Clinical alignment measures and MRI-derived muscle volume, maximum crossectional area, and shape, with followups from 6 mo to 3 years. Results: At average 15.3 mo after the final treatment, original misalignment was reduced by 10.5∆ (6.0o) with residual deviations 10∆ in 53% of patients. A single treatment with bupivacaine alone reduced misalignment at 11.3 mo by 4.7∆ (2.7o) with residual deviations 10∆ in 50% of patients. Alignment corrections were remarkably stable over followups as long as 3 yrs. Six months after bupivacaine injection, muscle volume had increased by 6.6%, and maximum crossectional area by 8.5%, gradually relaxing towards pre-treatment values thereafter. Computer modeling with Orbit™1.8 suggests that changes in agonist and antagonist muscle lengths were responsible for the enduring changes in eye alignment. Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection alone or together with botulium toxin injection in the antagonist improves eye alignment in comitant horizontal strabismus by inducing changes in rectus muscle structure and length. (Authors' Cut PDFPublisher's sitePublisher's use statistics)
ScottAB-2013-BPX-injection-for-strabismus Scott A, MillerJ, DanhKK (2013). Bupivacaine injection of eye muscles to treat strabismus. Chp 87 in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 4th Ed, eds HoytCS, TaylorD, pub Elsevier.
[Introduction] Correcting misalignment of deviating eyes is essential to developing and maintaining binocular vision and achieving a normal cosmetic appearance. Surgery on the extraocular muscles (EOM) and optical correction of refractive errors are the classic methods; injection of drugs into the eye muscles to change their action is a third method of altering eye alignment. I will describe the use of bupivacaine (BUP) injection of EOM, the first pharmacologic technique to strengthen the EOMs. It is safe, reliable, and long lasting for small to moderate comitant deviations, about equal in these regards to surgery, with which it will be compared in a pending trial.
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B47AcZH5Z0kYUVItbVpwbWRTTEE/edit?usp=sharing Scott AB, Miller JM, Shieh BS (2009). Treating strabismus by injecting the agonist muscle with bupivacaine and the antagonist with botulinum toxin. Transactions of the American Ophthamological Society, vol 107, pgs 104-109.
[Abstract] Purpose: We report results of a pilot trial of bupivacaine injection into extraocular muscles as a method of enlarging and strengthening the muscles to treat strabismus. Methods: Bupivacaine, in volumes from 1.0 to 4.5 mL and concentrations from 0.75% to 3.0%, was injected into 1 lateral rectus muscle in each of 6 patients with comitant esotropia with the use of the electrical activity recorded from the needle tip to guide injection. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and at intervals after injection to estimate changes in muscle size. Clinical measures of alignment were made before and at intervals after injection. Two patients required a second injection for adequate effect. Results: Four patients showed improved eye alignment, averaging 12∆, measured an average of 367 days after the last injection (range, 244-540 days). Two patients were substantially unchanged. Alignment improvement for all 6 patients averaged 8∆ (range, 0-14∆). Volumetric enlargement of the injected muscle, computed from magnetic resonance images, was 6.2% (range, –1.5% to 13.3%). There was a positive correlation between alignment change and muscle enlargement averaging 0.65. Injection caused a retrobulbar hemorrhage in an unchanged patient that cleared without affecting vision. Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in 4 of 6 esotropic patients. There was a positive correlation between improved eye alignment and increased muscle size. Clinical and laboratory studies are underway to determine optimal dosages, effects in other strabismus conditions, and differential effects of bupivacaine on contractile and elastic muscle components.
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B47AcZH5Z0kYc2l5ZWhUaG9rSVk/edit?usp=sharing Scott AB, Miller JM, Shieh BS (2009). Bupivacaine injection of the lateral rectus muscle to treat esotropia. Journal of AAPOS, vol 13, pgs 119-122.
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B47AcZH5Z0kYT1JDdWNrOWVmOFU/edit?usp=sharing Scott AB, Alexander DE, Miller JM (2007). Bupivacaine injection enlarges eye muscles. Transactions of the 31st European Strabismological Association. Mykonos, Greece 22-25 May 2007, pgs 177-180.
Scott AB, Alexander DE, Miller JM (2007)
Scott AB, Alexander DE, Miller JM (2007). Bupivacaine injection of eye muscles to treat strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol, vol 91, isu 2, pgs 146-148.
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Scott AB (2004). Development of botulinum toxin therapy. In: Dermatol Clin. Apr;22(2):131-3.
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Scott AB (1998). Botulinum toxin treatment of strabismus. In: Strabismus. Consejo Latinoamericano de Estrabismo (CLADE); 77-83.
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Scott AB (1997). Preventing ptosis after botulinum treatment. [In blepharospasm] Ophthalmic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; 13(2), 81-83.
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Scott AB (1993). Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins: Neurotransmission and Biomedical Aspects. Das Gupta BR (ed.), Plenum Press, New York; 557-8.
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Scott AB, Magoon EH, McNeer K, Stager DR (1990). Botulinum treatment of childhood strabismus. In: Strabismus and Ocular Motility Disorders. Campos EC (ed.), The Macmillan Press Ltd. 403-7.
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Scott AB (1990). Botulinum toxin treatment of strabismus. In: Strabismus and Ocular Motility Disorders. Campos EC (ed.), The Macmillan Press Ltd. 401-2.
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Scott AB (1990). Botulinum treatment of strabismus following retinal detachment surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 108: 509-10.
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Scott AB (1989). Botulinum toxin / role in ophthalmology. Focal Points: Clinical Modules for Ophthalmologists; 7: module 12.
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Scott AB (1988). Antitoxin reduces botulinum side effects. [In blepharospasm]. Eye; 2(1): 29-32.
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Scott AB (1986). Botulinum treatment for blepharospasm. In: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Smith BC (ed.), St. Louis: Mosby Co. 609-613.
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Scott AB, Kennedy RA, Stubbs HA (1985). Botulinum toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm. Arch Ophthalmol. 103: 347-50.
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Scott AB, Kraft SP (1985). Botulinum toxin injection in the management of lateral rectus paresis. Ophthalmology; 92(5): 676-683.
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Scott AB (1984). Injection treatment of endocrine orbital myopathy. Docum Ophthalmol. 58: 141-145.
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Scott AB (1981). Botulinum Toxin Injection of Eye Muscles to Correct Strabismus. Transactions of the Am. Ophthalmol. Society; 79: 734-70.
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Scott AB (1980). Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology; 87: 1044-9.
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Scott AB, Rosenbaum A, Collins CC (1973). Pharmacologic weakening of extraocular muscles. Invest Ophthalmol. Dec; 12(12): 924-7.

EOM Forces   Extraocular Muscle Forces


DavisLopezDeCarrizosaMA-2011-Dual-encoding-of-mforce-eyepos
Davis-Lopez de Carrizosa MA, Morado-Diaz CJ, Miller JM, de la Cruz RR & Pastor AM (2011). Dual Encoding of Muscle Tension and Eye Position by Abducens Motoneurons. Journal of Neuroscience, vol 31, num 6, pgs 2271-2279.
GamlinPD-2012-EOM-MUs-by-STA-alert-NHP

Gamlin PD, Miller JM (2012). Extraocular muscle motor units characterized by spike-triggered averaging in alert monkey. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol 204, pgs 159-167.


Individual primate motor units (MUs; a motoneuron and the set of muscle fibers it innervates) have only been studied using electrical stimulation in anesthetized animals. To study MUs in alert, behaving macaques, we simultaneously measured extraocular muscle force and MN activity. Horizontal rectus force was measured using MFTs, which record total physiological oculorotary force at the tendons of individual muscles, MN activity was measured extracellularly using tungsten microelectrodes, and individual MU twitches were extracted using MN spike-triggered averaging of MFT signals (STA-MFT). To minimize compounding of underlying twitches, animals fixated targets with the MFT-instrumented eye at a gaze position associated with a low MN firing rate (10-30 Hz). The MFT signal was AC-coupled and amplified, and multiple (1,000-6,000) signal epochs were aligned on spikes and averaged. With elemental MU responses thereby characterized, it becomes possible to study the participation of an MU in other eye movement regimens, involving higher or rapidly changing firing rates.


Recordings from 33 MR MNs in three animals identified 20 MUs, which had peak twitch tensions of 0.5 - 5.25 mg, initial twitch delays averaging 2.4 ms, and time to peak contraction averaging 9.3 ms. These twitch tensions are consistent with those reported in unanesthetized rabbits, and with estimates of the total number of MR motoneurons and twitch tension generated by whole-nerve stimulation in monkey, but are substantially lower than those reported for lateral rectus motor units in anesthetized squirrel monkey. MUs were recruited in order of twitch tension magnitude with stronger MUs reaching threshold further in the muscle’s ON-direction, showing that, as in other skeletal muscles, MR MUs are recruited according to the “size principle”.

MillerJM-2011-MN-activity-fails-to-predict-EOM-force Miller JM, Davison RC, Gamlin PD (2011). Motor nucleus activity fails to predict extraocular muscle forces in ocular convergence. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 105, pgs 2863-2873.

For a given eye position, firing rates of motoneurons (MNs) in the abducens nucleus are higher in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed (Gamlin et al, 1989a; Mays et al, 1984; Zhou et al, 1998), whereas lateral rectus (LR) and medial rectus (MR) muscle forces are not higher (Miller et al, 2002). We here report a similarly paradoxical finding for MNs in the medial rectus subdivision of the oculomotor nucleus, and confirm the two sides of these paradoxes by also recording LR and MR forces. Four trained NHPs with binocular eye coils and MFTs on the horizontal recti of one eye fixated near and far targets with symmetric and asymmetric vergence movements of 16–27°. Consistent with earlier findings from separate labs, we found that for 44 abducens neurons the mean slope of the rate-position relationship for vergence movement (kV) was lower than that for conjugate movement (kC; mean kV/kC = 0.50), which implies stronger LR innervation in convergence. We also found for 39 MRMNs that mean kV/kC = 1.53, also implying stronger MR innervation in convergence. However, despite these single-unit results, both LR and MR muscle forces were slightly lower in convergence (–0.40 g and –0.20 g, respectively). We conclude that the relationship of ensemble motoneuron firing to total muscle force is different in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed. We conjecture that LRMNs with kV < kC and MRMNs with kV > kC innervate muscle fibers that are weak, have mechanical coupling that attenuates their effective oculorotary force, or serve a regulatory function.
MillerJM-2003-No-OMP-no-FCP Miller JM (2003). No Oculomotor Plant, No Final Common Path. Strabismus, vol 11, isu 4, pgs 205-211.
MillerJM-2002-Missing-LR-force Miller JM, Bockisch CJ, Pavlovski DS (2002). Missing Lateral Rectus Force and Absence of Medial Rectus Co-Contraction in Ocular Convergence. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 87, pgs 2421-2433.

Contrary to expectations based on abducens single unit studies, direct physiologic measurements of lateral and medial rectus muscle forces in 3 NHPs shows no increase associated with eye convergence, disproving the fundamental assumption of oculomotor physiology that a single homogeneous "final common path" serves all supernuclear subsystems.
MillerJM-1992-EOM-forces-in-alert-monk
Miller JM, Robins D (1992). Extraocular muscle forces in alert monkey. Vision Research, vol 32, isu 6, pgs 1099-1113.

First measurements of static and dynamic physiologic EOM forces in an alert behaving animal, utilizing a chronically-implantable transducer designed and built in our laboratory.
No Download Miller JM, Robins D (1990). Chronic recording of EOM forces in alert monkey. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), 31 (pgs 289). Sarasota, FL: Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science.
PfannKD-1995-New-models-of-OM-mechanics-from-MFTs
Pfann KD, Keller EL, Miller JM (1995). New models of the oculormotor mechanics based on data obtained with chronic muscle force transducers. Annals of Biomedical Engineering.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Pfann KD, Miller JM, Keller EL (1991). Muscle dynamics during monkey saccadic eye movements and simulated saccadic eye movements. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol 13.

EOBM  Extraocular Biomechanics


ClarkRA-1998-Heterotopic-pulleys-or-oblique-muscle-dysfunction?
Clark RA, Miller JM, Rosenbaum AL, Demer JL (1998). Heterotopic muscle pulleys or oblique muscle dysfunction? Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol 2, isu 1, pgs 17-25..
CollinsCC-1985-Expert-systems-and-biomechanical-models-in-eye-muscle-surgery
Collins CC, Miller JM, Jampolsky A (1985). The roles of expert systems and biomechanical models in eye muscle surgery. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, vol 4, isu 4, pgs 17-25.
DemerJL-1997-Pulley-innerv
Demer JL, Poukens V, Miller JM, Micevych P (1997). Innervation of Extraocular Pulley Smooth Muscle in Monkeys and Humans. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 38, isu 9, pgs 1774-1785.
DemerJL-Clinical-correlations-of-models-of-orbital-statics
Demer JL, Miller JM, Rosenbaum AL (1992). Clinical correlations of models of orbital statics. In Scott, AB (Ed.), Mechanics of Strabismus Symposium, (pgs 141-161). San Francisco: Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute.
Oculomotor Fundamentalism

Miller JM (2007b). False Differential Predictions in Lee, Lai, Brodale & Jampolsky (2007). eLetter submitted to IOVS in response to "Kyoung-Min Lee, Annie P. Lai, James Brodale, & Arthur Jampolsky (2007). Sideslip of the Medial Rectus Muscle during Vertical Eye Rotation. IOVS, 48 (10), 4527-4533".

Jampolskys group has opposed the notion of EOM pulleys (see also McClung, Allman, Dimitrova & Goldberg, 2006) that has evolved over the past 20 years based on broad evidence of many types (see review in Miller 2007a, below), including recently, the compelling findings of Ghasia & Angelaki (2005) and Klier & Angelaki (2006), which Lee et al misrepresent and dismiss. Here, they use unproven, artifact-vulnerable, poorly specified methodology, where suitable broadly accepted methodology exists, and report only selected data. In interpreting their results, Lee et al selectively apply their arguments to an obsolete non-pulley model and a straw-man pulley model, the later having trochlea-like, localized, rigid pulleys, never previously proposed. Even with these biases, Lee et al cannot explain their data without assuming the existence of distributed, elastic, musculo-orbital, origin-determining EOM pulleys.
MillerJM-2007-Understanding-pulleys Miller JM (2007). Understanding and Misunderstanding Extraocular Muscle Pulleys. Journal of Vision, vol 7, num 11, art 10, pgs 1-15, http://journalofvision.org/7/11/10, doi:10.1167/7.11.10.

As evidence has mounted for the critical role of extraocular muscle (EOM) pulleys in normal ocular motility and disease, opposition to the notion has grown more strident. We review the stages through which pulley theory has developed, distinguishing passive, coordinated, weak differential, and strong differential pulley theories and focusing on points of controversy. There is overwhelming evidence that much of the eye's kinematics, once thought to require brainstem coordination of EOM innervations, is determined by orbital biomechanics. The main criticisms of pulley theory only apply to the strong differential theory, abandoned in 2002. Critiques of the notion of dual EOM insertions are shown to be mistaken. The role of smooth muscle and the issue of rotational noncommutativity are clarified. We discuss how pulley sleeves can be stabilized as required by the theory, noting that more work needs to be done in specifying the tissues involved.
MillerJM-1999-Clinical-applications-of-strab-models Miller JM, Demer JL (1999). Clinical Applications Of Computer Models For Strabismus. In eds Rosenbaum, A and Santiago, AP, Clinical Strabismus Management. cty Philadelphia, pub W. B. Saunders.
MillerJM-New-orbital-constraints-on-eye-rotation
Miller JM, Demer JL (1997). New Orbital Constraints on Eye Rotation. In eds Fetter, M, Misslisch, H and Tweed, D, Three-dimensional kinematic principles of eye, head and limb movement. cty Chur, Switzerland, pub Harwood.
Miller JM, Demer, JL (1996). Uses of Biomechanical Modeling. In Proceedings of CLADE, Buenos Aires, 1996.
OOI
Miller JM, Shamaeva I, Pavlovski DS (1995). Orbit 1.8™ gaze mechanics simulation. Eidactics; Suite 404; Greenwich Street; San Francisco, CA 94109; USA.
MillerJM-1993-TPose-MRI
Miller JM, Demer JL, Rosenbaum AL (1993). Effect of transposition surgery on rectus muscle paths by magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology, vol 100, isu 4, pgs 475-487.

We report the first test of the pulley model, in which the experiment outlined by Miller (1989) was performed in 4 human strabismus patients. Images of muscle paths, before and after vertical recti were reinserted at the margins of the lateral rectus, showed that the vertical rectus muscle bellies remained close to their pre-operative positions, supporting the pulley model, and leading to subsequent studies of pulley tissue anatomy, histology, and innervation.
No Download Miller JM, Bloom JN, Demer JL (1992). Upshoots and Downshoots in Duane's Syndrome: Analysis by MRI and Biomechanical Modeling. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 33, isu 4, pgs 1150.
MillerJM-1992-Biomech-analysis-of-strab Miller JM, Demer JL (1992). Biomechanical analysis of strabismus. Binocular Vision and Eye Muscle Surgery Quarterly, vol 7, isu 4, pgs 233-248.
Miller JM, Demer JL, Rosenbaum AL (1990). Two mechanisms of up-shoots and down-shoots in Duane's syndrome revealed by a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. In eds Campos, EC, Strabismus and Ocular Motility Disorders , pgs 229-234. cty London, pub Macmillian Press.
MillerJM-1989-EOM-functional-anatomy Miller JM (1989). Functional anatomy of normal human rectus muscles. Vision Res, vol 29, isu 2, pgs 223-40.

The modern concept of EOM pulleys is first proposed: extraocular muscle sheaths function as pulleys fixed to the orbital wall, significantly affect muscle actions, and require quite different eye movement control signals than muscles without pulleys. The type of no-pulley model that would give rise to "bridle forces" is shown to be wrong. A test of the pulley model is described using MRI data before and after muscle transposition surgery, and early results from such studies are cited to support the pulley model (see Miller et al 1993 for more).
Miller JM (1985). Applications of the SQUINT computer strabismus model. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 26 (pgs 253). Sarasota, FL: Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science.
MillerJM-1984-Computer-model-of-binoc-align Miller JM (1984). Computer model of binocular alignment. In Semmlow, JL and Welkowitz, W (Ed.), Sixth Annual Conference, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, . New York, NY.
MillerJM-1984-Mechanics-of-binoc-alignment Miller JM, Robinson DA (1984). A model of the mechanics of binocular alignment. Comput Biomed Res, vol 17, isu 5, pgs 436-70.
ScottAB-1984-Mech-model-applications Morad Y, Kowal L, Scott AB (2005). Lateral Rectus muscle disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall. Br J Ophthalmol. 89(8): 983-5.
ScottAB-1984-Mech-model-applications
Scott AB, Miller JM, Collins CC (1984). Mechanical model applications. In Gregersen, E (Ed.), Transe European Strabismological Association, 14th Meeting, (pgs 1-8). Copenhagen, Denmark: Jencodan Tryk Aps.
ScottAB-1992-Eye-Muscle-Prosthesis
Scott AB, Miller JM, Collins CC (1992). Eye muscle prosthesis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, vol 29, isu 4, pgs 216-8.
PDF
Scott AB (1978). Upshoots & downshoots. In: Smith-Kettlewell Symposium on Basic Sciences in Strabismus. Annex to V Congress of CLADE. Souza-Dias C (ed.), Sao Paolo: Edicoes Loyola; 60-5.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Souza-Dias C, Scott AB, Wang AH (2005). Progressive restrictive strabismus acquired in infancy. Br J Ophthalmol. 89(8): 986-7.

EOTA   General Ocular Motility


ClarkRA-2000-3D-loc-EOM-pulleys
Clark RA, Miller JM, Demer JL (2000). Three-dimensional Location of Human Rectus Pulleys by Path Inflection in Secondary Gaze Positions. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 41, isu 12, pgs 3787-3797.
DemerJL-1997-Pulley-innerv Demer JL, Poukens V, Miller JM, Micevych P (1997). Innervation of Extraocular Pulley Smooth Muscle in Monkeys and Humans. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 38, isu 9, pgs 1774-1785.
DemerJL-1995-MRI-of-functional-anatomy-of-SO
Demer JL, Miller JM (1995). Magnetic resonance imaging of the functional anatomy of the superior oblique muscle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol 36, isu 5, pgs 906-13.
DemerJL-1995-Fibromuscular-EOM-pulleys Demer JL, Miller JM, Poukens V, Vinters HV, Glasgow BJ (1995). Evidence for fibromuscular pulleys of the recti extraocular muscles. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol 36, pgs 1125-1136.
DemerJL-1994-Quant-MR-morphometry-of-EOM
Demer JL, Miller JM, Koo EY, Rosenbaum AL (1994). Quantitative magnetic resonance morphometry of extraocular muscles: a new diagnostic tool in paralytic strabismus. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, vol 31, isu 3, pgs 177-88.
http://journalofvision.org/6/5/6/ Miller JM, Rossi EA, Wiesmair M, Alexander DE & Gallo O (2006). Stability of gold bead tissue markers. Journal of Vision, 6(5), 616-624, http://journalofvision.org/6/5/6/, doi:10.1167/6.5.6.

A new soft tissue imaging method that uses tiny (~0.1 mm dia) gold beads as markers to visualize tissue movements with high spatial (~100 µm) and moderate temporal (~100 ms) resolution.
http://journalofvision.org/3/3/5/ Miller JM, Demer JL, Poukens V, Pavlovski DS, Nguyen HN, Rossi EA (2003). Extraocular Tissue Architecture. Journal of vision, Volume 3, Number 3, Article 5, pgs 240-251, http://journalofvision.org/3/3/5/.
MillerJM-1993-TPose-MRI Miller JM, Demer JL, Rosenbaum AL (1993). Effect of transposition surgery on rectus muscle paths by magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology, vol 100, isu 4, pgs 475-487.

We report the first test of the pulley model, in which the experiment outlined by Miller (1989) was performed in 4 human strabismus patients. Images of muscle paths, before and after vertical recti were reinserted at the margins of the lateral rectus, showed that the vertical rectus muscle bellies remained close to their pre-operative positions, supporting the pulley model, and leading to subsequent studies of pulley tissue anatomy, histology, and innervation.
MillerJM-1989-EOM-functional-anatomy Miller JM (1989). Functional anatomy of normal human rectus muscles. Vision Res, vol 29, isu 2, pgs 223-40.

The modern concept of EOM pulleys is first proposed: extraocular muscle sheaths function as pulleys fixed to the orbital wall, significantly affect muscle actions, and require quite different eye movement control signals than muscles without pulleys. The type of no-pulley model that would give rise to "bridle forces" is shown to be wrong. A test of the pulley model is described using MRI data before and after muscle transposition surgery, and early results from such studies are cited to support the pulley model (see Miller et al 1993 for more).
Miller JM (1988). Images of normal and abnormal human rectus muscles as a function of gaze. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 29 (pgs 343). Sarasota, FL: Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science.
MillerJM-1987-EOM-sideslip-and-orbital-geometry Miller JM, Robins D (1987). Extraocular muscle sideslip and orbital geometry in monkeys. Vision Res, vol 27, isu 3, pgs 381-92.
Miller JM, Robinson DA, Scott AB, Robins D (1984). Side-slip and the action of extraocular muscles. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, (pgs 182). Sarasota, FL: Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Scott AB (1996). Adaptations of the oculomotor system. In: Proceedings of CLADE (Consejo Latino-Americano de Estrabismo), XII Congress, Buenos Aires, Prieto-Diaz J (ed.), May; 509-11.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Scott AB (1994). Posterior fixation: adjustable and without posterior sutures. In: Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology: Transactions of the Joint Congress, June 19-23.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Scott AB (1994). Change of eye muscle sarcomeres according to eye position. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. Mar-Apr; 31(2): 85-8.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Scott AB (1979). Ocular Motility. In: Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System. Records R (ed.), Hagerstown: Harper & Row; 577-642.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Scott, AB (1975). Disinserted extraocular muscles. (Identification by muscle stimulation) Am J Ophthalmol. Feb;79(2):289-91.
PfannKD-1991-Muscle-dynamics-in-saccadic-eye-movement
Tyler CW, Scott AB (1994). Binocular Vision. In: Duane's Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology. Tasman, Jaeger (eds.), J.B. Lippincott Co.: Philadelphia; Chapter 24: 643-71.

SMA   Direction Perception & Sensorimotor Adaptation

BockischCJ-1999-EEPI Bockisch CJ, Miller JM (1999). Different motor systems use similar damped extraretinal eye position information. Vision Research, vol 39, pgs 1025-1038.
Martinez-Conde S, Krauzlis R, Miller JM, Morrone C, Williams D, Kowler E (2008). Eye movements and the perception of a clear and stable visual world. Journal of Vision, vol 8, num 14.
MillerJM-1997-Where-are-the-things-we-see Miller, JM, Bockisch, C (1997). Where Are The Things We See? Nature, vol 386 (10 April), pgs 550-551.
MillerJM-1993-Egocentric-local-of-perisacc-flash-by-manual-pointing Miller, JM (1996). Egocentric localization of a perisaccadic flash by manual pointing. Vision Research, vol 36, num 6, pgs 837-851.
MillerJM-1981-Saccacic-plasticity-by-retinal-feedback Miller JM, Anstis T, Templeton WB (1981). Saccadic plasticity: parametric adaptive control by retinal feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol 7, pgs 356-366.
MillerJM-1978-Info-used-by-perceptual-and-oculomotor-systems Miller, JM (1980). Information used by the perceptual and oculomotor systems regarding the magnitude of saccadic and pursuit eye movements. Vision Research, vol 20, pgs 59-68.
MillerJM-1979-Visual-motor-conflict-resolved-without-perceptual-change Miller JM (1979). Visual-motor conflict resolved by motor adaptation without perceptual change. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol 2, pgs 76.
MillerJM-1977-Impact-of-oculomotor-retraining Miller JM, Festinger L (1977). Impact of oculomotor retraining on the visual perception of curvature. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3(2), 187-200.