General References

These are papers we've found useful in our work. Several are classics, practically unavailable elsewhere. Links are to publishers' sites where they provide reasonable access to good quality searchable PDFs, and to local PDFs otherwise. Some of the latter contain annotations, which may be be useful to some readers, and are easily deleted if not. See Publications for papers originating from our lab.

Oculomotor Control & Extraocular Biomechanics Abramoff MD, Kalmann R, de Graaf MEL, Stilma JS, Mourits MP (2002). Rectus extraocular muscle paths and decompression surgery for graves orbitopathy: Mechanism of motility disturbances. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 43, isu 2, pgs 300-307. Anderson (2006). Increased extraocular muscle strength with direct injection of insulin-like growth factor IInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 47, isu 6, pgs 2461-2467. Angelaki DE, Hess BJ (2004). Control of eye orientation: Where does the brain's role end and the muscle's begin? European Journal of Neuroscience, vol 19, isu 1, pgs 1-10. Barmack NH, Bell CC, Rence BG (1971). Tension and rate of tension development during isometric responses of extraocular muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 34, pgs 1072-1079. Barmack NH (1977). Recruitment and suprathreshold frequency modulation of single extraocular muscle fibers in the rabbit. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 40, isu 4, pgs. 779-790. Blodi FC, Van Allen MW (1957). Electromyography of extraocular muscles in fusional movements. Ophtal and Neurol Serv of the Veterans Admin Hosp, pgs. 136-144. Breinin GM (1955). The nature of vergence revealed by electromyography I. Accommodative and fusional vergence. AMA Archs Ophthal, pgs 407-409. Breinin GM (1957). The nature of vergence revealed by electromyography II. Accommodative and fusional vergence. AMA Archs Ophthal, vol 58, pgs 535-549. Bruenech JR, Ruskell GL (2000). Myotendinous nerve endings in human infant and adult extraocular muscles. The Anatomical Record, vol 260, pgs 132–140. Bruenech JR, Ruskell GL (2001). Muscle spindles in extraocular muscles of human infants. Cells Tissue Organs, vol 169, pgs 388–394. Buettner-Ennever JA, Akert K (1981). Medial rectus subgroups of the oculomotor nucleus and their abducens internuclear input in the monkey. J Comp Neurology, vol 197, pgs 17-27. Buettner-Ennever JA, Horn AK, Scherberger H, d'Ascanio P (2001). Motoneurons of twitch and nontwitch extraocular muscle fibers in the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei of monkeys. J Comp Neurology, vol 438, pgs 318-335. Buettner-Ennever JA, Horn AK (2002). Oculomotor system: A dual innervation of the eye muscles from the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei. Movement Disorders, vol 17, suppl 2, pgs S2-S3. Buettner-Ennever JA, Horn AK (2002). The neuroanatomical basis of oculomotor disorders: The dual motor control of extraocular muscles and its possible role in proprioception. Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology, vol 15, pgs 35-43. Buettner-Ennever JA, Horn AK, Graf W, Ugolini G (2002). Modern concepts of brainstem anatomy. From extraocular motoneurons to proprioceptive pathways. Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 956, pgs 75-84. Buettner-Ennever JA (2008). Mapping the oculomotor system. Progress in Brain Research, vol 171, pgs 3-11.
ClarkRA-2012 Clark RA, Demer JL (2012). Differential Lateral Rectus Compartmental Contraction during Ocular Counter-Rolling.  Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 53, num 6, pgs 2887-2896. Clement RA (1982). Computer simulation of extraocular muscle cooperation: An evaluation. Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, vol 2, pgs 107-117. Clement RA (1985). A comparison of different models of extraocular muscle cooperation. Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, vol 5, pgs 165-170. Clendaniel RA, Mays LE (1994). Characteristics of antidromically identified oculomotor internuclear neurons during vergence and versional eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 17, pgs 1111-1127. Collins CC (1971). Orbital Mechanics. In The Control of Eye Movements, Academic Press: New York, pgs 283-335. Collins CC, O'Meara D, Scott AB (1975). Muscle tension during unrestrained human eye movements. J Physiol (Lond), vol 245, isu 2, pgs 351-369. Collins CC, Carlson MR, Scott AB, Jampolsky A (1981). Extraocular muscle forces in normal human subjects. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 20, isu 5, pgs 652-664. Cooper S, Eccles JC (1930). The isomeric responses of mammalian muscles. J of Physiol, vol 69, isu 4, pgs 377-385. Crawford JD, Martinez-Trujillo JC, Klier EM (2003). Neural control of three-dimensional eye and head movements. Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol 13, isu 6, pgs 655-662. CullenKE, Chen-Huang C, McCrea RA (1993). Firing behavior of brain stem neurons during voluntary cancellation of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex II. Eye movement related neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 70, isu 2, pgs 844-856. Cullen KE, Galiana HL, Sylvestre PA (2000). Comparing extraocular motoneuron discharges during head-restrained saccades and head-unrestrained gaze shifts. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 83, pgs 630-637. Demer JL (2001). Clarity of words and thoughts about strabismus. American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol 132, isu 5, pgs 757-759. Demer JL (2004). Pivotal role of orbital connective tissues in binocular alignment and strabismus - The Friedenwald lecture. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 45, isu 3, pgs 729-738.
Demer JL (2006). Current concepts of mechanical and neural factors in ocular motility. Curr Opin Neurol, vol 19, isu 1, pgs 4-13. Demer JL (2006). Evidence supporting extraocular muscle pulleys: Refuting the platygean view of extraocular muscle mechanics. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, vol 43, isu 5, pgs 296-305. Demer JL, Kono R, Wright W (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging of human extraocular muscles in convergence. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 89, isu 4, pgs 2072-2085. Demer JL, Oh SY, Poukens V (2000). Evidence for active control of rectus extraocular muscle pulleys. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 41, isu 6, pgs 1280-1290. Dimitrova DM, Shall MS, Goldberg SJ (2002). Short-term effects of botulinum toxin on the lateral rectus muscle of the cat. Exp Brain Res, vol 147, isu 4, pgs 449-455. Dimitrova DM, Shall MS, Goldberg SJ (2003). Stimulation evoked eye movements with and without the lateral rectus muscle pulley. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 90, isu 6, pgs 3809-3815. Eberhorn AC, Buettner-Ennever JA, Horn AK (2006). Identification of motoneurons supplying multiply-or singly-innervated extraocular muscle fibers in the rat. Neuroscience, vol 137,pgs 891-903. Enright JT (1992). The remarkable saccades of asymmetrical vergence. Vision Res, vol 32, isu 12, pgs 2261-2276. Fuchs AF, Luschei ES (1970). Firing patterns of abducens neurons of alert monkeys in relationship to horizontal eye movement. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 3, pgs 382-392. Fuchs AF, Luschei ES (1971). The activity of single trochlear nerve fibers during eye movements in the alert monkey. Exp Brain Res, vol 13, pgs 78-89.
Fuchs AF, Kaneko CR, Scudder CA (1985). Brainstem control of saccadic movements. Ann Rev Neurosci, vol 8, pgs 307-337. Fuchs AF, Kaneko CR, Scudder CA (1988). Discharge patterns and recruitment order of identified motoneurons and internuclear neurons in the monkey abducens nucleus. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 60, isu 6, pgs 1874-1895. Gamlin PD (2002). Neural mechanisms for the control of vergence eye movements. Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 956, pgs 264–272. Gamlin PD, Gnadt JW, Mays LE (1989). Abducens internuclear neurons carry an inappropriate signal for ocular convergence. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 62, isu 1, pgs 70-81. Gamlin PD, Gnadt JW, Mays LE (1989). Lidocaine-induced unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia: Effects on convergence and conjugate eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 62, isu 1, pgs 82-95. Gamlin PD, Mays LE (1992). Dynamic properties of medial rectus motoneurons during vergence eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 67, isu 1, pgs 64-74. Gamlin PD, Mays LE (1995). Neuronal circuitry controlling the near response. Curr Op Neurobiology, vol 5, pgs 763-768. Ghasia FF, Angelaki DE (2005). Do motoneurons encode the noncommutativity of ocular rotations? Neuron, vol 47, isu 2, pgs 281-293. Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, LaBar KS, Mesulam MM (2000). Real-time monitoring of eye movements using infrared video-oculography during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields. NeuroImage, vol 11, pgs 58-65. Goldberg ME (2000). The control of gaze. In Principles of Neural Science, pub McGraw-Hill. Goldberg SJ, Meredith MA, Shall MS (1998). Extraocular motor unit and whole-muscle responses in the lateral rectus muscle of the squirrel monkey. J Neurosci, vol 18, isu 24, pgs 10629-10639. Goldberg SJ, Shall MS (1997). Lateral rectus whole muscle and motor unit contractile measures with the extraocular muscles intact. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol 78, isu 1-2, pgs 47-50. Haslwanter T (1995). Mathematics of three-dimensional eye rotations. Vision Res, vol 35, isu 12, pgs 1727-1739. Jakobiec FA, Iwamoto T (1979). Ocular adnexa: Introduction to lids, conjuctiva, and orbit. pgs 1-55. Kernell D (1998). The final common pathway in postural control-Developmental perspective. Neurosci & Biobehav Rev, vol 22, isu 4, pgs 479-484. King WM, Lisberger SG, Fuchs AF (1986). Oblique saccadic eye movements of primatesJournal of Neurophysiology, vol 56, isu 3, pgs 769-784. King WM, Zhou W (2000). New ideas about binocular coordination of eye movements: Is there a chameleon in the primate family tree? Anat Rec, vol 261, pgs 153-161. King WM, Zhou W (2002). Neural basis of disjunctive eye movements. In Neurobiology of Eye Movements: from Molecules to Behavior, vol 956, pgs 273-283, cty New York: pub New York Acad Sciences. Klier EM, Meng H, Angelaki DE (2006). Three-dimensional kinematics at the level of the oculomotor plant. J Neurosci, vol 26, isu 10, pgs 2732-2737. Kono R, Clark RA, Demer JL (2002). Active pulleys: Magnetic resonance imaging of rectus muscle paths in tertiary gazes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 43, isu 7, pgs 2179-2188. Koornneef, L. (1983). Orbital connective tissue. In Duane TD & Jaeger EA (Eds.), Biomedical foundations of ophthalmology (vol 1, pgs 1-23). Philadelphia: Harper & Row. LangerT, Kaneko CR, Scudder CA, Fuchs AF (1986). Afferents to the abducens nucleus in the monkey and cat. J Comp Neurology, vol 245 isu 5, pgs 379-400. LemonRN (1993). Cortical control of the primate hand. Exp Physiol, vol 78, pgs 263-301. Lennerstrand G, Schiavi C, Tian S, Benassi M. Campos EC (2006). Isometric force measured in human horizontal eye muscles attached to or detached from the globe. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol 244, isu 5, pgs 539-544. Ling L, Fuchs AF, Phillips JO, Freedman EG (1999). Apparent dissociation between saccadic eye movements and the firing patterns of premotor neurons and motoneurons. J Neurophysiol, vol 82, isu 5, pgs 2808-2811. Ling L, Phillips JO, Siebold C (2003). Examining the paradoxical relation between number of spikes and gaze amplitude in abducens neurons. Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol 1004, pgs 158-168. Ling L, Fuchs A, Siebold C, Dean P (2007). Effects of initial eye position on saccade-related behavior of abducens nucleus neurons in the primate. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 98, pgs 3581-3599. Marg E, Jampolsky A, Tamler E (1959). Elements of human extraocular electromyography. AMA Arch Ophthalmol, vol 61, pgs 258-269.
MartinezTrujilloJC-2005 Martinez-TrujilloJC (2005). Noncommutativity of eye rotations and the half-angle rule. Neuron, vol 47, num 2, pgs 171-173. Matthews PB (2004). Historical analysis of the neural control of movement from the bedrock of animal experimentation to human studies. J Appl Physiol, vol 96, pgs 1478-1485. Mays LE (2004). Neural control of vergence eye movements. In, vol, cty: pub. Mays LE, Porter JD (1984). Neural control of vergence eye movements: Activity of abducens and oculomotor neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 52, isu 4, pgs 743-761. Mays LE, Porter JD, Gamlin PD, Tello CA (1986). Neural control of vergence eye movements: Neurons encoding vergence velocity. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 56, isu 4, pgs 1007-1021. McClung JR, Allman BL, Dimitrova DM, Goldberg SJ (2006). Extraocular connective tissues: A role in human eye movements? Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 47, isu 1, pgs 202-205. Migliaccio AA, Cremer PD, Aw ST, Halmagyi GM (2004). Vergence-mediated changes in listing's plane do not occur in an eye with superior oblique palsy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 45, isu 9, pgs 3043-3047. McLoon LK, Rios L, Wirtschafter JD (1999). Complex three-dimensional patterns of myosin isoform expression: Differences between and within specifc extraocular muscles. J of Muscle Res and Cell Motility, vol 20, pgs 771-783. Miller JE (1959). The electromyography of vergence movement. AMA Archives of Opthalomology, vol 62, pgs 82-86. Misslisch H, Tweed D (2001). Neural and mechanical factors in eye control. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 86, isu 4, pgs 1877-1883. Monti RJ, Roy RR, Edgerton VR (2001). Role of motor unit structure in defining function. Muscle and Nerve, vol 24, isu 7, pgs 848-866. Moschovakis AK, Highstein SM (1994). The anatomy and physiology of primate neurons that control rapid eye movements. Ann Rev Neurosci, vol 17, pgs 465-488. Oh SY, Poukens V, Demer JL (2001). Quantitative analysis of rectus extraocular muscle layers in monkey and humans. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 42, isu 1, pgs 10-16. Porrill J, Ivins JP, Frisby JP (1999). The variation of torsion with vergence and elevation. Vision Res, vol 39, pgs 3934–3950. Porrill J, Warren PA, Dean P (2000). A simple control law generates Listing's positions in a detailed model of the extraocular muscle system. Vision Res, vol 40, pgs 3743–3758. PorterJD, BakerRS, RagusaRJ, BruecknerJK (1995). Extraocular Muscles: Basic and Clinical Aspects of Structure and Function. Survey of Ophthalmology, vol 39, num 6, pgs 451-484. Porter JD, Karathanasis P, Bonner PH, Brueckner JK (1997). The oculomotor periphery: The clinician's focus is no longer a basic science stepchild. Curr Opin Neurobiol, vol 7, isu 6, pgs 880-887. Quaia C, Optican LM (2003). Dynamic eye plant models and the control of eye movements. Strabismus, vol 11, isu 1, pgs 17-31. Robinson DA (1975). A quantitative analysis of extraocular muscle cooperation and squint. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 14, isu 11, pgs 801-25. Schor CM (2003). Neural control of eye movements. In Adler's Physiology of the Eye, vol 10, pgs 830-858. Schreiber KM, Tweed DB (2003). Influence of eye position on stereo matching. Strabismus, vol 11, isu 1, pgs 9-16. Schutte S, van den Bedem SPW, van Keulen F, van der Heim FCT, Simonsz HJ (2006). A finite-element analysis model of orbital biomechanics. Vision Research, vol 46, isu 11, pgs 1724-1731. Scott AB, Collins CC (1973). Division of labor in human extraocular muscle. Arch Ophtal, vol 90, pgs 319-322. Scudder CA, Fuchs AF (1992). Physiological and behavioral identification of vestibular nucleus neurons mediating the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex in trained rhesus monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology  vol 68, isu 1, pgs 244-264. Scudder CA, Kaneko CR, Fuchs AF (2002). The brainstem burst generator for saccadic eye movements. Exp Brain Res, vol 142, pgs 439-462. Shall MS, Goldberg SJ (1992). Extraocular motor units: Type classification and motoneuron stimulation frequency-muscle unit force relationships. Brain Res, vol 587, pgs 291-300. Shall MS, Dimitrova DM, Goldberg SJ (2003). Extraocular motor unit and whole-muscle contractile properties in the squirrel monkey. Exp Brain Res, vol 151, isu 3, pgs 338-345. Simonsz HJ (1990). The mechanics of squint surgery. Paris: CERES. Sparks DL, Harris-Warrick RM (1997). Motor systems. Curr Op in Neurobio, vol 7, pgs 777-780. Sparks DL (2002). The brainstem control of saccadic eye movements. Nature Rev Neurosci, vol 3, pgs 952-964. Stashuk DW (1999). Detecting single fiber contributions to motor unit action potentials. Muscle and Nerve, vol 22, isu 2, pgs 218-229. Sylvestre PA, Cullen KE (1999). Quantitative analysis of abducens neuron discharge dynamics during saccadic and slow eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 82, pgs 2612-2632. Sylvestre PA, Cullen KE (2002). Dynamics of abducens nucleus neuron discharges during disjunctive saccades. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 88, pgs 3452-3468. Tamler E, Jampolski A, Marge E (1958). An electromyographic study of asymmetric convergence. Am J Ophthalmol, vol 46, pgs 174–182. Tamler E, Jampolski A (1967). Is divergence active? An electromyographic study. Am J Ophthalmol, vol 63, pgs 452-459. Taylor AM, Steege JW, Enoka RM (2002). Motor-unit synchronization alters spike-triggered average force in simulated contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 88, pgs 265-276. Tweed DB, Vilis T (1990). Geometric relations of eye position and velocity vectors during saccades. Vision Res, vol 30, isu 1, pgs 111-127. Tweed DB (1997). Visual-motor optimization in binocular control. Vision Res, vol 37, isu 14, pgs 1939-1951. Tweed DB, Haslwanter TP, Happe V & Fetter M (1999). Non-commutativity in the brain. Nature, vol 399, isu 6733, pgs 261-263. Ugolini G, Klam F, Dans MD, Dubayle D, Brandi AM, Buettner-Ennever J, Graf W (2006). Horizontal eye movement networks in primates as revealed by retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus: Differences in monosynaptic input to "slow" and "fast" abducens motoneurons. J Comp Neurol, vol 498, pgs 762–785. Van Horn MR, Cullen KE (2009). Dynamic characterization of agonist and antagonist oculomotoneurons during conjugate and disconjugate eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 102, pgs 28-40. Wasicky R, Horn AK, Buttner-Ennever JA (2004). Twitch and nontwitch motoneuron subgroups in the oculomotor nucleus of monkeys receive different afferent projections. J Comp Neurol, vol 479, pgs 117-129. Weir CR, Knox PC, Dutton GN (2000). Does extraocular muscle proprioception influence oculomotor control? Br J Ophthalmol, vol 84, pgs 1071–1074. Young M, Paul A, Rodda J, Duxson M, Sheard P (2000). Examination of intrafascicular muscle fiber terminations: Implications for tension delivery in series-fibered muscles. Journal of Morphology, vol 245, isu 2, pgs 130-145. Zhou W, King WM (1998). Premotor commands encode monocular eye movements. Nature, vol 393, isu 6686, pgs 692-695.

Methods & Instrumentation Ashley S (2003). Artificial muscles. Sci Am, vol 289, isu 4, pgs 52-59. Chronos Vision (2006). Chronos eye tracking device (C-ETD) user manual. pgs 1-98, cry Germany, pub Chronos Vision. Clarke AH, Ditterich J, Druen K, Schonfeld U, Steineke C (2002). Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput, vol 34, isu 4, pgs 549-560. Dako (2006). Immunohistochemical staining methods, 4th edition. Dako (2009). General instructions for immunohistochemical staining. Dennerlein JT, Miller JM, Mote Jr CD, Rempel DM (1997). A low profile human tendon force transducer: The influence of tendon thickness on calibration. Journal of Biomechanics, vol 30, isu 4, pgs 395-397. Entran. ESB semiconductor strain gages. Fluke (2002). Model 187 & 189 Multimeter Users Manual. Fluke Corp, pgs 1-96. Hatamian M, Anderson DJ (1983). Design Considerations for a real-time ocular counterroll instrument. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol BME-30, isu 5, pgs 278-288. Imai T, Sekine K, Hattori K, Takeda N, Koizuka I, Nakamae K, Miura K, Fujioka H, Kubo T (2005). Comparing the accuracy of video-oculography and the scleral search coil system in human eye movement analysis. Auris Nasus Larynx, vol 32, isu 1, pgs 3-9. James DL, Pai DK (2004). BD-Tree: Output-sensitive collision detection for reduced deformable models. ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2004), vol 23, isu 3, pgs. Kim SC, Nam KC, Lee WS, Kim DW (2006). A new method for accurate and fast measurement of 3D eye movements. Med Eng Phys, vol 28, isu 1, pgs 82-89. Kobayashi H, Kohshima S (2001). Unique morphology of the human eye and its adaptive meaning: comparative studies on external morphology of the primate eye. Journal of Human Evolution, vol 40, isu, pgs 419-435. Loctite (2005). The Loctite® Design Guide for Bonding Plastics, vol 6. Loctite (2005). The Loctite® Design Guide for Bonding Rubbers and TPEs, vol 2. Merrill DR, Bikson M, Jefferys JGR (2005). Electrical stimulation of excitable tissue: design of efficacious and safe protocols. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol 141, isu 2, pgs 171-198. Nakayama K (1974). Photographic determination of the rotational state of the eye using matrices. Am J Optom Physiol Opt, vol 51, isu 10, pgs 736-742. National Instruments (1998). Strain Gauge Measurement – A Tutorial (Application Note 078). pgs 12. Pai DK (2002). Strands: Interactive simulation of thin solids using cosserat models. Computer Graphics Forum, The International Journal of the Eurographics Association, vol 21, isu 3, pgs 347–352.
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Muscle Biology Anderson BC, Christiansen SP, Grandt S, Grange RW, McLoon LK (2006). Increased extraocular muscle strength with direct injection of insulin-like growth factor-I. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 47, isu 6, pgs 2461-2467. Anderson JE (2006). The satellite cell as a companion in skeletal muscle plasticity: currency, conveyance, clue, connector and colander [Review]. The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol 209, isu, pgs 2276-2292. Billington L, Carlson BM (1996). The recovery of long-term denervated rat muscles after Marcaine treatment and grafting. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol 144, isu, pgs 147-155. ChargeSBP, RudnickiMA (2004). Cellular and Molecular Regulation of Muscle Regeneration. Physiol Rev vol 84, pgs 209–238, 2004, 10.1152/physrev.00019.2003. Christiansen SP, McLoon LK (2006). The effect of resection on satellite cell activity in rabbit extraocular muscle. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 47, isu 2, pgs 605-613. McLoon LK, Christiansen SP (2003). Increasing insulin-like extraocular muscle strength with growth factor II. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 44, isu 9, pgs 3866-3872.

Orbit™ In The News & Scientific Literature

These papers discuss or utilize our Orbit Gaze Mechanics Simulation.

Cabungcal JH, Misslischa H, Heppb K, Hess BJM (2002). Geometrical properties of three-dimensional binocular eye position in light sleep. Vision Research, vol 42, isu 1, pgs 89-98.
Castanera de Molina, A (1998). A biomechanical model of congenital/infantile esotropia and its treatment. Binocular Vision & Strabismus Quarterly, vol 13, isu 4, pgs 255-266.
Clark RA, Demer JL (2002). Effect of aging on human rectus extraocular muscle paths demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Ophthalmol, vol 134, isu 6, pgs 872–878.
Computer model can be used to plot out strabismus surgery. Ocular Surgery News, 1998.02.15.
Das VE, Fu LN, Mustari MJ, Tusa RJ (2004). Incomitance in Monkeys with Strabismus. Strabismus, vol 13, isu 1, pgs 33-41. Demer JL, Miller JM, Poukens V (1996). Surgical implications of the rectus extraocular muscle pulleys. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, vol 33, isu 4, pgs 208-18. Demer JL, Clark RA, Miller JM (1998). Role of orbital connective tissue in the pathogenesis of strabismus. American Orthoptic Journal, vol 48, pgs 56-64. Demer JL, Clark RA, Miller JM (1999). Heterotopy of extraocular muscle pulleys causes incomitant strabismus. In Lennerstrand G (Ed), Advances in Strabismology, pgs 91-94. cty Amsterdam, pub Swets.
Demer JL, Kono R, Wright W, Oh SY, Clark RA (2002). Gaze-related orbital pulley shift: a novel cause of incomitant strabismus. In de Faber JT (Ed) Progress in Strabismology, Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger, pgs 207–210.
Demer JL, Clark RA (2005). Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Extraocular Muscles During Static Ocular Counter-Rolling. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol 94, pgs 3292-3302.
Foster, RS (1997). Vertical muscle transposition augmented with lateral fixation. JAAPOS, vol 1, isu 1, pgs 20-30.
Haslwanter T, Hoerantner R, Priglinger S (2004). Reduction of ocular muscle power by splitting of the rectus muscle I: Biomechanics. Br J Ophthalmol, vol 88, pgs 1403-1408.
Hoerantner R, Kaltofen T, Priglinger S, Fock CM, Buchberger M and Haslwanter T (2007). Model-Based Improvements in the Treatment of Patients with Strabismus and Axial High Myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol 48, isu 3, pgs 1133-1138.
Koene, AR, Erkelens CJ (2002). Cause of kinematic differences during centrifugal and centripetal saccades. Vision Research, vol 42, pgs 1797-1808.
Koene AR, Erkelens CJ (2004). Properties of 3D rotations and their relation to eye movement control. Biol Cybern, vol 90, isu 6, pgs 410–417.
Kono R, Poukens V, Demer JL (2002). Quantitative Analysis of the Structure of the Human Extraocular Muscle Pulley System. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 43, no 9, pgs 2923-2932.
Kono R, Poukens V, Demer JL (2005). Superior Oblique Muscle Layers in Monkeys and Humans. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 46, isu 8, pgs 2790-2799.
Kono R, Okanobu R, Ohtsuki H, Demer JL (2008). Displacement of the Rectus Muscle Pulleys Simulating Superior Oblique Palsy. Jpn J Ophthalmol, vol 52, isu 1, pgs 36-43.
Krzizok TH, Kaufmann H, Traupe H (1997). Elucidation of restrictive motility in high myopia by magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Ophthalmol, vol 115, pgs 1019-1027.
Krzizok TH, Schroeder BU (1999). Measurement of recti eye muscle paths by magnetic resonance imaging in highly myopic and normal subjects. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.
Kushner BJ (2006). How Do Recessions and Resections of Extraocular Muscles Work? Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, vol 10, isu 4, pgs 291-292.
Maxwell JS, Schor CM (1994). Mechanisms of vertical phoria adaptation revealed by time-course and two-dimensional spatiotopic maps. Vision Res, vol 34, isu 2, pgs 241-51.
Maxwell JS, Schor CM (2006). The coordination of binocular eye movements: Vertical and torsional alignment. Vision Research, vol 46, isu 21, pgs 3537-3548. Migliaccio AA, Cremer PD, Aw ST, Halmagyi GM (2004). Vergence-Mediated Changes in Listing’s Plane Do Not Occur in an Eye with Superior Oblique Palsy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol 45, isu 9, pgs 3043-3047.
Miller AM, Mims III JL (2006). The Influence of Pulleys on the Quantitative Characteristics of Medial Rectus Muscle Recessions: The Torque Vector Model. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol 10, isu 4, pgs 318-323.
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Other Topics Betelak KF, Margiotti EA, Wohlford ME, Suzuki DA (2001). The use of titanium implants and prosthodontic techniques in the preparation of non-human primates for long-term neuronal recording studies. J Neurosci Methods, vol 112, isu 1, pgs 9-20. Cohen JI, Davenport DS, Stewart JA, Deitchman S, Hilliard JK, Chapman LE (2002). Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1). Clin Infect Dis, vol 35, isu 10, pgs 1191-1203. Foeller P, Tychsen L (2002). Eye movement training and recording in alert macaque monkeys: 1. Operant visual conditioning; 2. Magnetic search coil and head restraint surgical implantation; 3. Calibration and recording. Strabismus, vol 10, isu 1, pgs 5-22.
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